top of page
Gemsmiths history of gold old.PNG


Gemsmiths Gold Information 

The earliest recorded metal employed by humans appears to be gold, which can be found free or "native". Small amounts of natural gold have been found in Spanish caves used during the late Paleolithic period, c. 40,000 BC.
Gold artifacts made their first appearance at the very beginning of the pre-dynastic period in Egypt, at the end of the fifth millennium BC and the start of the fourth, gold smelting was developed during the course of the 4th millennium; gold artifacts appear in the archeology of Lower Mesopotamia during the early 4th millennium. 
Gold artifacts in the Balkans appear from the 4th millennium BC, such as those found in the Varna Necropolis near Lake Varna in Bulgaria, thought by one source (La Niece 2009) to be the earliest "well-dated" find of gold artifacts.
As of 1990, gold artifacts found at the Wadi Qana cave cemetery of the 4th millennium BC in West Bank were the earliest from the Levant. Gold artifacts such as the golden hats and the Nebra disk appeared in Central Europe from the 2nd millennium BC Bronze Age.

An Indian tribute-bearer at Apadana, from the Achaemenid satrapy of Hindush, carrying gold on a yoke, circa 500 BC.


The Muisca raft, between circa 600-1600 AD. The figure refers to the ceremony of the legend of El Dorado. The zipa used to cover his body in gold dust, and from his raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake. This old Muisca tradition became the origin of the legend of El Dorado.
This Muisca raft figure is on display in the Gold Museum, Bogotá, Colombia.

The oldest known map of a gold mine was drawn in the 19th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (1320–1200 BC), whereas the first written reference to gold was recorded in the 12th Dynasty around 1900 BC.
Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe gold, which King Tushratta of the Mitanni claimed was "more plentiful than dirt" in Egypt.
Egypt and especially Nubia had the resources to make them major gold-producing areas for much of history. One of the earliest known maps, known as the Turin Papyrus Map, shows the plan of a gold mine in Nubia together with indications of the local geology. The primitive working methods are described by both Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, and included fire-setting. Large mines were also present across the Red Sea in what is now Saudi Arabia.

gemsmiths gold information gold boat.PNG
gemsmiths gold information gold tree scu

Gold is mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, starting with Genesis 2:11 (at Havilah), the story of the golden calf, and many parts of the temple including the Menorah and the golden altar. In the New Testament, it is included with the gifts of gold in the first chapters of Matthew.
The Book of Revelation 21:21 describes the city of New Jerusalem as having streets "made of pure gold, clear as crystal". Exploitation of gold in the south-east corner of the Black Sea is said to date from the time of Midas, and this gold was important in the establishment of what is probably the world's earliest gold coinage in Lydia around 610 BC.

 The legend of the golden fleece dating from eighth century BCE may refer to the use of fleeces to trap gold dust from placer deposits in the ancient world. From the 6th or 5th century BC, the Chu (state) circulated the Ying Yuan, one kind of square gold coin.

Ancient golden Kritonios Crown, funerary or marriage material, 370–360 BC. From a grave in Armento, Campania


In Roman metallurgy, new methods for extracting gold on a large scale were developed by introducing hydraulic mining methods, especially in Hispania from 25 BC onwards and in Dacia from 106 AD onwards.
One of their largest gold mines was at Las Medulas in León, where seven long aqueducts enabled them to sluice most of a large gold alluvial deposit.

 The gold mines at Roşia Montană in Transylvania were also very large, and until very recently, still mined gold by opencast methods. They also exploited smaller deposits of gold in Britain, such as placer and hard-rock gold deposits at Dolaucothi. The various methods they used are well described by Pliny the Elder in his encyclopedia Naturalis Historia written towards the end of the first century AD.

Gold coin of Eucratides I (171–145 BC), one of the Hellenistic rulers of ancient Ai-Khanoum. This is the largest known gold coin minted in antiquity (169.2 g (5.97 oz); 58 mm (2.3 in)

gemsmiths gold information gold coin.PNG
gemsmiths gold info gold leafs.PNG

Minoan jewellery; 2300–2100 BC; various sizes; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

Learn More

Pair of Sumerian earrings with cuneiform inscriptions; 2093–2046 BC; Sulaymaniyah Museum (Sulaymaniyah, Iraq)

Learn More

Ancient Egyptian statuette of Amun; 945–715 BC; gold; 175 mm × 47 mm (6.9 in × 1.9 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Learn More
gemsmiths gold infor gold man.PNG

Ancient Egyptian signet ring; 664–525 BC; gold; diameter: 30 mm × 34 mm (1.2 in × 1.3 in); British Museum (London)

Learn More
gemsmiths gold info gold stamp.PNG
gemsmiths gold info gold roman coin.PNG

Ancient Greek stater; 323–315 BC; 18 mm (0.71 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Learn More
gemsmiths gold info gold flower.PNG

Etruscan funerary wreath; 4th–3rd century BC; length: 333 mm (13.1 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Learn More

Roman aureus of Hadrian; 134–138 AD; 7.4 g; Metropolitan Museum of Art

Learn More
gemsmiths gold info gold coin.PNG

Quimbaya lime container; 5th–9th century; gold; height: 230 mm (9.1 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Learn More
gemsmiths gold info statue.PNG
gemsmiths gold info old gold coin.PNG

Byzantine scyphate; 1059–1067; diameter: 25 mm (0.98 in); Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)

Learn More
gemsmiths gold info gold figures.PNG

Pre-Columbian pendant with two bat-head worriors who carry spears; 11th–16th century; gold; overall: 76.2 mm (3.00 in); from the Chiriqui Province (Panama); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Learn More

English Neoclassical box; 1741; overall: 44 mm × 116 mm × 92 mm (1.7 in × 4.6 in × 3.6 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art

Learn More
gemsmiths gold info gold box.PNG

French Rococo glass bottle mounted in gold; circa 1775; overall: 70 mm × 29 mm (2.8 in × 1.1 in); Cleveland Museum of Art

Learn More
gemsmiths gold info gold vase.PNG
gemsmiths gold info assorted old gold.PN

During Mansa Musa's (ruler of the Mali Empire from 1312 to 1337) hajj to Mecca in 1324, he passed through Cairo in July 1324, and was reportedly accompanied by a camel train that included thousands of people and nearly a hundred camels where he gave away so much gold that it depressed the price in Egypt for over a decade, causing high inflation. A contemporary Arab historian remarked:

Gold was at a high price in Egypt until they came in that year. The mithqal did not go below 25 dirhams and was generally above, but from that time its gold value fell and it cheapened in price and has remained cheap till now. The mithqal does not exceed 22 dirhams or less. This has been the state of affairs for about twelve years until this day by reason of the large amount of gold which they brought into Egypt and spent.

— Chihab Al-Umari, Kingdom of Mali

Gold coin of Eucratides I (171–145 BC), one of the Hellenistic rulers of ancient Ai-Khanoum. This is the largest known gold coin minted in antiquity (169.2 g (5.97 oz); 58 mm (2.3 in)).
The European exploration of the Americas was fueled in no small part by reports of the gold ornaments displayed in great profusion by Native American peoples, especially in Mesoamerica, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia.

 The Aztecs regarded gold as the product of the gods, calling it literally "god excrement" (teocuitlatl in Nahuatl), and after Moctezuma II was killed, most of this gold was shipped to Spain. However, for the indigenous peoples of North America gold was considered useless and they saw much greater value in other minerals which were directly related to their utility, such as obsidian, flint, and slate.
El Dorado is applied to a legendary story in which precious stones were found in fabulous abundance along with gold coins. The concept of El Dorado underwent several transformations, and eventually accounts of the previous myth were also combined with those of a legendary lost city of gold. 
El Dorado, was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca native people in Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita. The legends surrounding El Dorado changed over time, as it went from being a man, to a city, to a kingdom, and then finally to an empire.

Gold played a role in western culture, as a cause for desire and of corruption, as told in children's fables such as Rumpelstiltskin—where Rumpelstiltskin turns hay into gold for the peasant's daughter in return for her child when she becomes a princess—and the stealing of the hen that lays golden eggs in Jack and the Beanstalk.

The top prize at the Olympic Games and many other sports competitions is the gold medal.

75% of the presently accounted for gold has been extracted since 1910. It has been estimated that the currently known amount of gold internationally would form a single cube 20 m (66 ft) on a side (equivalent to 8,000 m3 or 280,000 cu ft).

One main goal of the alchemists was to produce gold from other substances, such as lead — presumably by the interaction with a mythical substance called the philosopher's stone. Although they never succeeded in this attempt, the alchemists did promote an interest in systematically finding out what can be done with substances, and this laid the foundation for today's chemistry. Their symbol for gold was the circle with a point at its center (☉), which was also the astrological symbol and the ancient Chinese character for the Sun.

The symbol Au is from the Latin: aurum, the Latin word for "gold". 


Outside chemistry, gold is mentioned in a variety of expressions, most often associated with intrinsic worth Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with gold, in the form of gold medals, gold trophies and other decorations. Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually awarded a gold medal. Many awards such as the Nobel Prize are made from gold as well. Other award statues and prizes are depicted in gold or are gold plated (such as the Academy Awards, the Golden Globe Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Palme d'Or, and the British Academy Film Awards).

gemsmiths gold info gold medal.PNG
gemsmiths gold info wedding rings.PNG

Aristotle in his ethics used gold symbolism when referring to what is now known as the golden mean. Similarly, gold is associated with perfect or divine principles, such as in the case of the golden ratio and the golden rule.


Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. A person's most valued or most successful latter years are sometimes considered "golden years". The height of a civilization is referred to as a golden age.

Gemsmiths gold info gold necklace.PNG
gemsmiths gold info gold crosses.PNG

In some forms of Christianity and Judaism, gold has been associated both with holiness and evil. In the Book of Exodus, the Golden Calf is a symbol of idolatry, while in the Book of Genesis, Abraham was said to be rich in gold and silver, and Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure gold. In Byzantine iconography the halos of Christ, Mary and the Christian saints are often golden.


In Islam, gold (along with silk) is often cited as being forbidden for men to wear. Abu Bakr al-Jazaeri, quoting a hadith, said that "
the wearing of silk and gold are forbidden on the males of my nation, and they are lawful to their women". This, however, has not been enforced consistently throughout history, e.g. in the Ottoman Empire. Further, small gold accents on clothing, such as in embroidery, may be permitted.

According to Christopher Columbus, those who had something of gold were in possession of something of great value on Earth and a substance to even help souls to paradise.

gemsmiths gold info stchristopher.PNG
gemsmiths gold info wedding bands.PNG

Wedding rings are typically made of gold. It is long lasting and unaffected by the passage of time and may aid in the gold ring symbolism of eternal vows before God and the perfection the marriage signifies.


On 24 August 2020, Israeli archaeologists discovered a trove of early Islamic gold coins near the central city of Yavne. Analysis of the extremely rare collection of 425 gold coins indicated that they were from the late 9th century. Dating to around 1,100 years back, the gold coins were from the Abbasid Caliphate.

gemsmiths gold info gold coins.PNG
gemsmiths gold info old goldsmith.PNG

Gold and silversmith in Lucknow, India 1890

gemsmiths gold info goldsmiths.PNG

A goldsmith workshop during the mid-seventeenth century

Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported,  the history of these activities is extensive.


Superbly made gold objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Asia, Europe, India, North America, Mesoamerica, and South America grace museums and gold collections throughout the world. Some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths.

gemsmiths gold info old goldsmiths.PNG

In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and usually were one of the most important and wealthiest of the guilds in a city. The guild kept records of members and the marks they used on their products. These records, when they survive, are very useful to historians.
Goldsmiths often acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the safe storage of valuable items, though they were usually restrained from lending at interest, which was regarded as usury. 

In the Middle Ages, goldsmithing normally included silversmithing as well, but the brass workers and workers in other base metals normally were members of a separate guild, since the trades were not allowed to overlap. Many jewellers also were goldsmiths.

Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, and the history of these activities is extensive.
Superbly made gold objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Asia, Europe, India, North America, Mesoamerica, and South America grace museums and collections throughout the world.
Some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a skill level that was lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed, even to modern times. 


A goldsmith might have a wide array of skills and knowledge at their disposal. Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers unique opportunities for the goldsmith.
In today's world a wide variety of other metals, especially platinum alloys, also may be used frequently. 24 carat is pure gold and historically, was known as fine gold.

Because it is so soft, however, 24 carat gold is rarely used. It is usually alloyed to make it stronger and to create different colors. Depending on the metals used to create the alloy, the color can change.

This alloyed gold is then stamped with the assay office mark, representing the percentage of gold present in the alloy for commercially used gold.
Casting Gold jewellery and small parts
The methods used for small parts and Gold jewellery vary somewhat from those used for sculpture.

gemsmiths gold info hallmarks.PNG
gemsmiths gold info wax model.PNG
gemsmiths gold info wax tree.PNG

A wax model is obtained either from injection into a rubber mould or by being custom-made by carving. The wax or waxes are sprued and fused onto a rubber base, called a "sprue base". Then a metal flask, which resembles a short length of steel pipe that ranges roughly from 3.5 to 15 centimeters tall and wide, is put over the sprue base and the waxes.

Most sprue bases have a circular rim which grips the standard-sized flask, holding it in place. Investment (refractory plaster) is mixed and poured into the flask, filling it. It hardens, then is burned out as outlined above. Casting is usually done straight from the kiln either by centrifugal casting or vacuum casting.


The lost-wax process can be used with any material that can burn, melt, or evaporate.

In dentistry, gold crowns, inlays and onlays are made by the lost-wax technique. Application of Lost Wax technique for the fabrication of cast inlay was first reported by Taggart. A typical gold alloy is about 60% gold and 28.4% silver with copper and other metals making up the rest. Careful attention to gold tooth preparation, impression taking and laboratory technique are required to make this type of restoration a success. Dental laboratories make other items this way as well.
The majority of the jewellery is made with a pure gold alloy, while a smaller part uses lower gold-density alloys to keep jewellery cheaper.

gemsmiths gold info casting.PNG
gemsmiths gold info cast wax tree.PNG

The gold may be cast into some item then, usually with the lost wax casting process, or it may be used to fabricate the work directly in metal.

gemsmiths gold info rolling metal.PNG

In the latter case, the goldsmith will use a variety of tools and machinery, including the rolling mill, the drawplate, and perhaps, swage blocks and other forming tools to make the gold into shapes needed to build the intended gold piece. 

Learn More
gemsmiths gold info drawing down metal.P
gemsmiths gold info soldering.PNG

Then parts are fabricated through a wide variety of processes and assembled by gold soldering.

Learn More
Gemsmiths Derbyshire Diamond Ring.jpeg

It is a testament to the history and evolution of the gold trade that those skills have reached an extremely high level of attainment and skill over time. A fine goldsmith can and will work to a tolerance approaching that of precision machinery, but largely using only his eyes and hand tools.

Learn More

Quite often the goldsmith's job involves the making of gold mountings for gemstones, in which case they often are referred to as jewellers.

Learn More

Jeweller', however, is a term mostly reserved for a person who deals in jewellery (buys and sells gold) and not to be confused with a goldsmith, silversmith, gemologist, diamond cutter, and diamond setters.

 A 'jobbing jeweller' is the term for a jeweller who undertakes a small basic amount of gold jewellery repair and alteration.

Learn More
Gemsmiths Derbyshire Jewellery Repairs.j

A bench jeweller is an artisan who uses a combination of skills to make and repair gold jewellery. Some of the more common skills that a bench jeweller might employ include antique gold restoration, silversmithing, goldsmithing, stone setting, engraving, fabrication, wax carving, lost-wax casting, gold electroplating, 
Jewellery manufacture
In general, an original design is made and sold using processes such as molding, gold casting, gold stamping and similar techniques. The other is original, one of a kind work. The bench jeweller will be a factor in many facets of the process, depending on what is needed and the skills of the goldsmith.


When a production piece is contemplated, it may go through a design process that can range from one person with an idea to a full-scale planning stage involving teams of artists and marketing professionals. Eventually, that design will need to be made into a real piece of gold jewellery, which is generally called a model, and the worker who makes it is generally the model maker. This is often considered the highest form of craftsmanship, as the piece must be made true to the design and also to most exacting standards.


A good model maker is, along with a fine watchmaker among the most technically skilled workers in any trade. After the model is made and found to be what is desired, it is molded or perhaps entered into a machining process to make copies. Assuming it is molded, multiples of the piece are cast in gold from the mold. 


though the principles are the same for jewellery casting. The cast pieces will likely need a variety of work done to them, including filing to remove the skin left from casting and prepare for polishing, straightening parts, rounding and sizing gold rings, and assembling many various parts together using gold solder.

Gemsmiths Derbyshire Jewellery Repairs.j

Although the method used is called gold soldering, it is actually a form of brazing, using "solders" of the gold being worked, i.e. gold solders for gold pieces, silver solder for silver pieces, etc. All of this is the work of bench jewellers, who at this level are sometimes known as production workers in some arenas. In this context, the bench jeweller (often known simply as a goldsmith) is responsible for all of the main work involved in turning a raw gold casting into a piece of jewellery - filing it, straightening it, assembling parts or adding settings for stones, repairing any problems that might have occurred, and preparing it for stone setting and polishing.


Special-order jewellery
Special-order jewellery is the making of one of a kind items and is not too different from model making. The Main difference between the two is that the special-order piece is made in gold or other precious materials, while often a model is not, and the need for exacting precision is nowhere near as high as in model making.

gemsmiths gold info wax carving.PNG

Generally the special order jeweller takes a design, either their own or a customer's, and turns it into a piece of finished jewellery from start to finish.


 This process, like model making, can be fairly simple Wax Carving to be cast into gold, or it can involve very complex fabrication skills building the piece out of the actual gold using a wide variety of skills and tools. Very often both model making and special order involve gemstones, and thus the pieces must be designed and made to properly hold them.


Anatomy of a jewellery shop
It will be obvious that any manufacturer of any gold product will design a workshop to their own liking and it may defy convention. There are, however, some typical categories that most work shops in the jewellery trade will employ. If it is a manufacturing workshop, likely it will begin with the casting room, then to the bench jewellers or goldsmiths, perhaps to the polishing department and maybe to stone setting.


Generally there will be at least one model maker, who may also do special orders, or there may be a dedicated special order department and sometimes even repair, depending on the size of the workshop. Usually there is also at least one foreman and also a front office handling management. In addition there might be engravers, enamelists, perhaps a machine shop and others, depending on the gold product being made. A good work shop behaves as a team, with each department doing their part and the work passing back and forth between them as needed. In this situation each goldsmith is a specialist at their job, and though they may have a broader background that becomes useful at times, they generally will not enter into another department's expertise.

Each department also recognizes the worker's abilities, so that there may be ten goldsmiths called "goldsmiths", but one will have simple skills, and another may have greatly higher ability, and so the more or less challenging jobs are assigned accordingly.

Gemsmiths Derbyshire Jewellery Repairs.j

A bench jeweller
Although the term bench jeweller is a contemporary term with vague meaning, it often is used to describe a jeweller who has a larger set of skills than that of a production worker who merely files and solders rings. Thus they may have a fair knowledge of stone setting, a bit of engraving, and perhaps other skills that widen their abilities.


For a long time throughout history the model was as described above under "Anatomy of a Jewellery Shop", with a fairly strict delineation of responsibilities. In the modern day, there are a great many gold jewellers who do it all, from design to stone setting to finishing with fair ability. Whether it is used in one context or another, there is no doubt that the bench jeweller is the gold jewellery worker who does the major gold work and the gold soldering, and its meaning can also be taken more widely to mean one who is more versatile in the gold trade than merely an assembler of gold parts. The term can and has been used to describe any of the gold work described above - model making, gold special order, gold repair, gold assembly, and more, though it is probably becoming a term to describe an all-around gold jeweller more and more in recent years.


Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
Mézaille, Nicolas; Avarvari, Narcis; Maigrot, Nicole; Ricard, Louis; Mathey, François; Le Floch, Pascal; Cataldo, Laurent; Berclaz, Théo; Geoffroy, Michel (1999). "Gold(I) and Gold(0) Complexes of Phosphinine‐Based Macrocycles". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 38 (21): 3194–3197. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19991102)38:21<3194::AID-ANIE3194>3.0.CO;2-O. PMID 10556900.
Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
Kelly, P. F. (2015). Properties of Materials. CRC Press. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-4822-0624-1.
Duckenfield, Mark (2016). The Monetary History of Gold: A Documentary History, 1660–1999. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 9781315476124. Its scarcity makes it a useful store of value; however, its relative rarity reduced its utility as a currency, especially for transactions in small denominations.
Pearce, Susan M. (1993). Museums, Objects, and Collections: A Cultural Study. Smithsonian Books. p. 53. ISBN 9781588345172. Its scarcity makes it a useful store of value; however, its relative rarity reduced its utility as a currency, especially for transactions in small denominations. ... Rarity is, nevertheless, in itself a source of value, and so is the degree of difficulty which surrounds the winning of the raw material, especially if it is exotic and has to be brought some distance. Gold is, geologically, a relatively rare material on earth and occurs only in specific places which are remote from most other places.
"How much gold has been mined?". Retrieved 28 May 2020.
Soos, Andy (6 January 2011). "Gold Mining Boom Increasing Mercury Pollution Risk". Advanced Media Solutions, Inc. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
"Gold" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries. 2018.
Kizuka, Tokushi (1 April 2008). "Atomic configuration and mechanical and electrical properties of stable gold wires of single-atom width". Physical Review B. 77 (15): 155401. Bibcode:2008PhRvB..77o5401K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.77.155401. ISSN 1098-0121.
Che Lah, Nurul Akmal and Trigueros, Sonia (2019). "Synthesis and modelling of the mechanical properties of Ag, Au and Cu nanowires". Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 20 (1): 225–261. Bibcode:2019STAdM..20..225L. doi:10.1080/14686996.2019.1585145. PMC 6442207. PMID 30956731.
"Gold: causes of color". Retrieved 6 June 2009.
Mallan, Lloyd (1971). Suiting up for space: the evolution of the space suit. John Day Co. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-381-98150-1.
Gray, Theo (14 March 2008). "How to Make Convincing Fake-Gold Bars". Popular Science. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
Willie, Jim (18 November 2009) "Zinc Dimes, Tungsten Gold & Lost Respect Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine". Kitco
"Largest Private Refinery Discovers Gold-Plated Tungsten Bar | Coin Update".
Reuters (22 December 1983). "Austrians Seize False Gold Tied to London Bullion Theft". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Tungsten filled Gold bars, ABC Bullion, Thursday, 22 March 2012
Arblaster, J. W. (1995). "Osmium, the Densest Metal Known" (PDF). Platinum Metals Review. 39 (4): 164.
Encyclopædia of Chemistry, Theoretical, Practical, and Analytical, as Applied to the Arts and Manufacturers: Glass-zinc. J.B. Lippincott & Company. 1880. pp. 70–.
"Relativity in Chemistry". Retrieved 5 April 2009.
Schmidbaur, Hubert; Cronje, Stephanie; Djordjevic, Bratislav; Schuster, Oliver (2005). "Understanding gold chemistry through relativity". Chemical Physics. 311 (1–2): 151–161. Bibcode:2005CP....311..151S. doi:10.1016/j.chemphys.2004.09.023.
Jewellery Alloys. World Gold Council
Electron Microscopy in Microbiology. Academic Press. 1988. ISBN 978-0-08-086049-7.
"Nudat 2". National Nuclear Data Center. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
Audi, Georges; Bersillon, Olivier; Blachot, Jean; Wapstra, Aaldert Hendrik (2003), "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties", Nuclear Physics A, 729: 3–128, Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A, doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001
Miethe, A. (1924). "Der Zerfall des Quecksilberatoms". Die Naturwissenschaften. 12 (29): 597–598. Bibcode:1924NW.....12..597M. doi:10.1007/BF01505547. S2CID 35613814.
Sherr, R.; Bainbridge, K. T. & Anderson, H. H. (1941). "Transmutation of Mercury by Fast Neutrons". Physical Review. 60 (7): 473–479. Bibcode:1941PhRv...60..473S. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.60.473.
Hammer, B.; Norskov, J. K. (1995). "Why gold is the noblest of all the metals". Nature. 376 (6537): 238–240. Bibcode:1995Natur.376..238H. doi:10.1038/376238a0. S2CID 4334587.
Johnson, P. B.; Christy, R. W. (1972). "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals". Physical Review B. 6 (12): 4370–4379. Bibcode:1972PhRvB...6.4370J. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.6.4370.
Shaw III, C. F. (1999). "Gold-Based Medicinal Agents". Chemical Reviews. 99 (9): 2589–2600. doi:10.1021/cr980431o. PMID 11749494.
"Chemistry of Oxygen". Chemwiki UC Davis. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
Craig, B. D.; Anderson, D. B., eds. (1995). Handbook of Corrosion Data. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International. p. 587. ISBN 978-0-87170-518-1.
Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils & Holleman, Arnold Frederick (2001). Inorganic Chemistry (101st ed.). Academic Press. p. 1286. ISBN 978-0-12-352651-9.
Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-12-352651-9.
Wiberg, Wiberg & Holleman 2001, pp. 1286–1287
(PDF). 10 November 2004 Archived from the original on 10 November 2004. Missing or empty |title= (help)
Jansen, Martin (2005). "Effects of relativistic motion of electrons on the chemistry of gold and platinum". Solid State Sciences. 7 (12): 1464–1474. Bibcode:2005SSSci...7.1464J. doi:10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2005.06.015.
Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-352651-9.
Jansen, Martin (2008). "The chemistry of gold as an anion". Chemical Society Reviews. 37 (9): 1826–1835. doi:10.1039/b708844m. PMID 18762832.
Wickleder, Mathias S. (2001). "AuSO4: A True Gold(II) Sulfate with an Au24+ Ion". Journal of Inorganic and General Chemistry. 627 (9): 2112–2114. doi:10.1002/1521-3749(200109)627:9<2112::AID-ZAAC2112>3.0.CO;2-2.
Wickleder, Mathias S. (2007). Devillanova, Francesco A. (ed.). Handbook of chalcogen chemistry: new perspectives in sulfur, selenium and tellurium. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 359–361. ISBN 978-0-85404-366-8.
Seidel, S.; Seppelt, K. (2000). "Xenon as a Complex Ligand: The Tetra Xenono Gold(II) Cation in AuXe42+(Sb2F11−)2". Science. 290 (5489): 117–118. Bibcode:2000Sci...290..117S. doi:10.1126/science.290.5489.117. PMID 11021792.
Riedel, S.; Kaupp, M. (2006). "Revising the Highest Oxidation States of the 5d Elements: The Case of Iridium(+VII)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 45 (22): 3708–3711. doi:10.1002/anie.200600274. PMID 16639770.
Berners-Price, Susan J. (2011) [2011]. "Gold-Based Therapeutic Agents: A New Perspective". In Alessio, E. (ed.). Bioinorganic Medicinal Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. pp. 197–221. doi:10.1002/9783527633104.ch7. ISBN 9783527633104.
Casini, Angela; Wai-Yin-Sun, Raymond; Ott, Ingo (2018). "Chapter 7. Medicinal Chemistry of Gold Anticancer Metallodrugs". In Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Freisinger, Eva; Sigel, Roland K. O. (eds.). Metallo-Drugs:Development and Action of Anticancer Agents. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 18. pp. 199–217. doi:10.1515/9783110470734-013. ISBN 9783110470734. PMID 29394026.
"Earth's Gold Came from Colliding Dead Stars". David A. Aguilar & Christine Pulliam. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
Seeger, Philip A.; Fowler, William A.; Clayton, Donald D. (1965). "Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements by Neutron Capture". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 11: 121. Bibcode:1965ApJS...11..121S. doi:10.1086/190111.
"Supernovas & Supernova Remnants". Chandra X-ray Observatory. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Chornock, R. (2013). "An r-process Kilonova Associated with the Short-hard GRB 130603B". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 774 (2): 4. arXiv:1306.3960. Bibcode:2013ApJ...774L..23B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/774/2/L23. S2CID 669927.
"we have no spectroscopic evidence that [such] elements have truly been produced," wrote author Stephan Rosswog.Rosswog, Stephan (29 August 2013). "Astrophysics: Radioactive glow as a smoking gun". Nature. 500 (7464): 535–536. Bibcode:2013Natur.500..535R. doi:10.1038/500535a. PMID 23985867. S2CID 4401544.
"LIGO and Virgo make first detection of gravitational waves produced by colliding neutron stars" (PDF). LIGO & Virgo collaborations. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
"Neutron star mergers may create much of the universe's gold". Sid Perkins. Science AAAS. 20 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
Willbold, Matthias; Elliott, Tim; Moorbath, Stephen (2011). "The tungsten isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle before the terminal bombardment". Nature. 477 (7363): 195–8. Bibcode:2011Natur.477..195W. doi:10.1038/nature10399. PMID 21901010. S2CID 4419046.
Battison, Leila (8 September 2011). "Meteorites delivered gold to Earth". BBC.
"Mangalisa Project". Superior Mining International Corporation. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
Therriault, A. M.; Grieve, R. A. F. & Reimold, W. U. (1997). "Original size of the Vredefort Structure: Implications for the geological evolution of the Witwatersrand Basin". Meteoritics. 32: 71–77. Bibcode:1997M&PS...32...71T. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1997.tb01242.x.
Meteor craters may hold untapped wealth. Cosmos Magazine (28 July 2008). Retrieved on 12 September 2013.
Corner, B.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nicolaysen, L. O. (1990). "Relationships between the Vredefort structure and the Witwatersrand basin within the tectonic framework of the Kaapvaal craton as interpreted from regional gravity and aeromagnetic data". Tectonophysics. 171 (1): 49–61. Bibcode:1990Tectp.171...49C. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(90)90089-Q.
McCarthy, T., Rubridge, B. (2005). The Story of Earth and Life. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. pp. 89–90, 102–107, 134–136. ISBN 1 77007 148 2
Norman, N., Whitfield, G. (2006) Geological Journeys. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. pp. 38–49, 60–61. ISBN 9781770070622
University of Granada (21 November 2017). "Scientists reveals the mystery about the origin of gold". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
Tassara, Santiago; González-Jiménez, José M.; Reich, Martin; Schilling, Manuel E.; Morata, Diego; Begg, Graham; Saunders, Edward; Griffin, William L.; O’Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Grégoire, Michel; Barra, Fernando; Corgne, Alexandre (2017). "Plume-subduction interaction forms large auriferous provinces". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 843. Bibcode:2017NatCo...8..843T. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00821-z. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 5634996. PMID 29018198.
La Niece, Susan (senior metallurgist in the British Museum Department of Conservation and Scientific Research) (15 December 2009). Gold. Harvard University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-674-03590-4. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
Heike, Brian. "Formation of Lode Gold Deposits". Arizona Gold Prospectors. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013.
"Environment & Nature News – Bugs grow gold that looks like coral". 28 January 2004. Retrieved 22 July 2006. This is doctoral research undertaken by Frank Reith at the Australian National University, published 2004.
"Earthquakes Turn Water into Gold|18 March 2013". Retrieved 18 March 2013.
Kenison Falkner, K.; Edmond, J. (1990). "Gold in seawater". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 98 (2): 208–221. Bibcode:1990E&PSL..98..208K. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(90)90060-B.
Plazak, Dan A Hole in the Ground with a Liar at the Top (Salt Lake: Univ. of Utah Press, 2006) ISBN 0-87480-840-5 (contains a chapter on gold-from seawater swindles)
Haber, F. (1927). "Das Gold im Meerwasser". Zeitschrift für Angewandte Chemie. 40 (11): 303–314. doi:10.1002/ange.19270401103.
McHugh, J. B. (1988). "Concentration of gold in natural waters". Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 30 (1–3): 85–94. doi:10.1016/0375-6742(88)90051-9. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020.
"Furthermore the second member of Delegation XVIII is carrying four small but evidently heavy jars on a yoke, probably containing the gold dust which was the tribute paid by the Indians." in Iran, Délégation archéologique française en (1972). Cahiers de la Délégation archéologique française en Iran. Institut français de recherches en Iran (section archéologique). p. 146.
"History of Gold". Gold Digest. Retrieved 4 February 2007.
Sutherland, C.H.V, Gold (London, Thames & Hudson, 1959) p 27 ff.
Gopher, A.; Tsuk, T.; Shalev, S. & Gophna, R. (August–October 1990). "Earliest Gold Artifacts in the Levant". Current Anthropology. 31 (4): 436–443. doi:10.1086/203868. JSTOR 2743275. S2CID 143173212.
Pohl, Walter L. (2011) Economic Geology Principles and Practice. Wiley. p. 208. doi:10.1002/9781444394870.ch2. ISBN 9781444394870
Montserrat, Dominic (21 February 2003). Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt. ISBN 978-0-415-30186-2.
Moran, William L., 1987, 1992. The Amarna Letters, pp. 43–46.
Moran, William L. 1987, 1992. The Amarna Letters. EA 245, "To the Queen Mother: Some Missing Gold Statues", pp. 84–86.
"Akhenaten". Encyclopaedia Britannica
Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
"A Case for the World's Oldest Coin: Lydian Lion". 2 October 2003. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
Mansa Musa. Black History Pages
"Kingdom of Mali – Primary Source Documents". African studies Center. Boston University. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
Monnaie, Eucratide I. (roi de Bactriane) Autorité émettrice de. [Monnaie : 20 Statères, Or, Incertain, Bactriane, Eucratide I].
Berdan, Frances; Anawalt, Patricia Rieff (1992). The Codex Mendoza. 2. University of California Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-520-06234-4.
Sierra Nevada Virtual Museum. Sierra Nevada Virtual Museum. Retrieved on 4 May 2012.
"Yearly Gold Production in metric tonnes (1900–2004)". Goldsheet Mining Directory. Archived from the original on 12 June 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2006.
Harper, Douglas. "gold". Online Etymology Dictionary.
Hesse, R W. (2007) Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia, Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313335079
Notre Dame University Latin Dictionary Retrieved 7 June 2012
de Vaan, Michel (2008). Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic languages. Leiden: Boston: Brill. p. 63. ISBN 978-90-04-16797-1.
Christie, A and Brathwaite, R. (Last updated 2 November 2011) Mineral Commodity Report 14 — Gold, Institute of geological and Nuclear sciences Ltd – Retrieved 7 June 2012
Moors, Annelies (2013). "Wearing gold, owning gold: the multiple meanings of gold jewelry". Etnofoor. 25 (1): 78–89. ISSN 0921-5158. OCLC 858949147.
Boulanouar, Aisha Wood (2010). "Myths and Reality: Meaning in Moroccan Muslim Women's Dress". University of Otago. CiteSeerX
Poonai, Anand (2015). "Islamic Male Clothing". Who We Are & What We Wear. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
Aziz, Rookhsana (November 2010). "Hijab – The Islamic Dress Code: Its historical development, evidence from sacred sources and views of selected Muslim scholars". University of South Africa. CiteSeerX
Toronto, James A. (1 October 2001). "Many Voices, One Umma: Sociopolitical Debate in the Muslim Community". BYU Studies Quarterly. 40 (4): 29–50.
Jirousek, Charlotte (2004). "Islamic Clothing". Encyclopedia of Islam. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
Omar, Sara (28 March 2014). "Dress". The Encyclopedia of Islam and Law, Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
Bernstein, Peter L. (2004). The Power of Gold: The History of an Obsession. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-471-43659-1.
"Israeli dig unearths large trove of early Islamic gold coins". Associated Press. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
"Gold Supply – Mining & Recycling". World Gold Council.
Munteen, John L.; Davis, David A.; Ayling, Bridget (2017). The Nevada Mineral Industry 2016 (PDF) (Report). University of Nevada, Reno. OCLC 1061602920. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
Mandaro, Laura (17 January 2008). "China now world's largest gold producer; foreign miners at door". MarketWatch. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
Beinhoff, Christian. "Removal of Barriers to the Abatement of Global Mercury Pollution from Artisanal Gold Mining" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
Truswell, J.F. (1977). The Geological Evolution of South Africa. pp. 21–28. Purnell, Cape Town. ISBN 9780360002906
Moore, Mark A. (2006). "Reed Gold Mine State Historic Site". North Carolina Office of Archives and History. Archived from the original on 15 January 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2008.
Garvey, Jane A. (2006). "Road to adventure". Georgia Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
"Grasberg Open Pit, Indonesia". Mining Technology. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
"Gold jewellery consumption by country". Reuters. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012.
"Gold Demand Trends | Investment | World Gold Council". Retrieved 12 September 2013.
"Gold Demand Trends". 12 November 2015.
O'Connell, Rhona (13 April 2007). "Gold mine production costs up by 17% in 2006 while output fell". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
Noyes, Robert (1993). Pollution prevention technology handbook. William Andrew. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-8155-1311-7.
Pletcher, Derek & Walsh, Frank (1990). Industrial electrochemistry. Springer. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-412-30410-1.
Marczenko, Zygmunt & María, Balcerzak (2000). Separation, preconcentration, and spectrophotometry in inorganic analysis. Elsevier. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-444-50524-8.
Baraniuk, Chris (27 October 2020). "Why it's getting harder to mine gold". BBC. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
"Country wise gold demand". Retrieved 2 October 2015.
Harjani, Ansuya (18 February 2014). "It's official: China overtakes India as top consumer of gold". Retrieved 2 July 2014.
Abdul-Wahab, Sabah Ahmed; Ameer, Marikar, Fouzul (24 October 2011). "The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals". Central European Journal of Engineering. 2 (2): 304–313. Bibcode:2012CEJE....2..304A. doi:10.2478/s13531-011-0052-3. S2CID 3916088.
Summit declaration, Peoples' Gold summit, San Juan Ridge, California in June 1999. (22 February 2012). Retrieved on 4 May 2012.
Cyanide spills from gold mine compared to Chernobyls nuclear disaster. (14 February 2000). Retrieved on 4 May 2012.
Death of a river. BBC News (15 February 2000). Retrieved on 4 May 2012.
Cyanide spill second only to Chernobyl. 11 February 2000. Retrieved on 4 May 2012.
Behind gold's glitter, torn lands and pointed questions, New York Times, 24 October 2005
"Pollution from Artisanal Gold Mining, Blacksmith Institute Report 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 22 September 2015.
Norgate, Terry; Haque, Nawshad (2012). "Using life cycle assessment to evaluate some environmental impacts of gold". Journal of Cleaner Production. 29–30: 53–63. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.01.042.
Rothbard, Murray N. (2009). Man, Economy, and State, Scholar's Edition. Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 978-1-933550-99-2.
Seltman, C. T. (1924). Athens, Its History and Coinage Before the Persian Invasion. ISBN 978-0-87184-308-1. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
Postan, M. M.; Miller, E. (1967). The Cambridge Economic History of Europe: Trade and industry in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press, 28 August 1987. ISBN 978-0-521-08709-4.
"Swiss Narrowly Vote to Drop Gold Standard". The New York Times. 19 April 1999.
King, Byron (20 July 2009). "Gold mining decline". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
Lawrence, Thomas Edward (1948). The Mint: A Day-book of the R.A.F. Depot Between August and December 1922, with Later Notes. p. 103.
Tucker, George (1839). The theory of money and banks investigated. C. C. Little and J. Brown.
"Currency codes – ISO 4217". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
Valenta, Philip (22 June 2018). "On hedging inflation with gold". Medium. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
"The Ever Popular Krugerrand". 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
Warwick-Ching, Tony (28 February 1993). The International Gold Trade. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-85573-072-4.
Elwell, Craig K. (2011). Brief History of the Gold Standard (GS) in the United States. pp. 11–13. ISBN 978-1-4379-8889-5.
Hitzer, Eckhard; Perwass, Christian (22 November 2006). "The hidden beauty of gold" (PDF). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced Mechanical and Power Engineering 2007 (ISAMPE 2007) between Pukyong National University (Korea), University of Fukui (Japan) and University of Shanghai for Science and Technology (China), 22–25 November 2006, hosted by the University of Fukui (Japan), pp. 157–167. (Figs 15,16,17,23 revised.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
"World Gold Council > value > research & statistics > statistics > supply and demand statistics". Archived from the original on 19 July 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2006.
"historical charts:gold – 1833–1999 yearly averages". kitco. Retrieved 30 June 2012., Gold – London PM Fix 1975 – present (GIF), Retrieved 22 July 2006.
"LBMA statistics". 31 December 2008. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
"Gold hits yet another record high". BBC News. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
"PRECIOUS METALS: Comex Gold Hits All-Time High". The Wall Street Journal. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2010.[dead link]
Gibson, Kate; Chang, Sue (11 May 2010). "Gold futures hit closing record as investors fret rescue deal". MarketWatch. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
Valetkevitch, Caroline (1 March 2011). "Gold hits record, oil jumps with Libya unrest". Reuters. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
Sim, Glenys (23 August 2011). "Gold Extends Biggest Decline in 18 Months After CME Raises Futures Margins". Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
"Financial Planning|Gold starts 2006 well, but this is not a 25-year high!". Archived from the original on 21 April 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
Mandruzzato, GianLuigi (14 October 2020). "Gold, monetary policy and the US dollar".
Revere, Alan (1 May 1991). Professional goldsmithing: a contemporary guide to traditional jewelry techniques. Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 978-0-442-23898-8.
Uses of gold Accessed 4 November 2014
Krech III, Shepard; Merchant, Carolyn; McNeill, John Robert, eds. (2004). Encyclopedia of World Environmental History. 2: F–N. Routledge. pp. 597–. ISBN 978-0-415-93734-4.
"General Electric Contact Materials". Electrical Contact Catalog (Material Catalog). Tanaka Precious Metals. 2005. Archived from the original on 3 March 2001. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
Fulay, Pradeep; Lee, Jung-Kun (2016). Electronic, Magnetic, and Optical Materials, Second Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4987-0173-0.
Peckham, James (23 August 2016). "Japan wants citizens to donate their old phone to make 2020 Olympics medals". TechRadar.
Kean, W. F.; Kean, I. R. L. (2008). "Clinical pharmacology of gold". Inflammopharmacology. 16 (3): 112–25. doi:10.1007/s10787-007-0021-x. PMID 18523733. S2CID 808858.
Moir, David Macbeth (1831). Outlines of the ancient history of medicine. William Blackwood. p. 225.
Mortier, Tom. An experimental study on the preparation of gold nanoparticles and their properties, PhD thesis, University of Leuven (May 2006)
Richards, Douglas G.; McMillin, David L.; Mein, Eric A. & Nelson, Carl D. (January 2002). "Gold and its relationship to neurological/glandular conditions". The International Journal of Neuroscience. 112 (1): 31–53. doi:10.1080/00207450212018. PMID 12152404. S2CID 41188687.
Merchant, B. (1998). "Gold, the Noble Metal and the Paradoxes of its Toxicology". Biologicals. 26 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1006/biol.1997.0123. PMID 9637749.
Messori, L.; Marcon, G. (2004). "Gold Complexes in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis". In Sigel, Astrid (ed.). Metal ions and their complexes in medication. CRC Press. pp. 280–301. ISBN 978-0-8247-5351-1.
Faulk, W. P.; Taylor, G. M. (1971). "An immunocolloid method for the electron microscope". Immunochemistry. 8 (11): 1081–3. doi:10.1016/0019-2791(71)90496-4. PMID 4110101.
Roth, J.; Bendayan, M.; Orci, L. (1980). "FITC-protein A-gold complex for light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry". Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 28 (1): 55–7. doi:10.1177/28.1.6153194. PMID 6153194.
Bozzola, John J. & Russell, Lonnie Dee (1999). Electron microscopy: principles and techniques for biologists. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7637-0192-5.
"Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Nanomedicine: Hybrid Nanoparticles In Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer". Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia. Archived from the original on 14 March 2009.
Hainfeld, James F.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Smilowitz, Henry M. (2008). "Radiotherapy enhancement with gold nanoparticles". Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 60 (8): 977–85. doi:10.1211/jpp.60.8.0005. PMID 18644191. S2CID 32861131.
"Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". Food Standards Agency, UK. 27 July 2007.
"Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of gold (E 175) as a food additive". EFSA Journal. 14 (1): 4362. 2016. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4362. ISSN 1831-4732.
"The Food Dictionary: Varak". Barron's Educational Services, Inc. 1995. Archived from the original on 23 May 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2007.
Kerner, Susanne; Chou, Cynthia; Warmind, Morten (2015). Commensality: From Everyday Food to Feast. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-85785-719-4.
Baedeker, Karl (1865). "Danzig". Deutschland nebst Theilen der angrenzenden Länder (in German). Karl Baedeker.
King, Hobart M. "The Many Uses of Gold". Retrieved 6 June 2009.
Gold in Gastronomy. deLafee, Switzerland (2008)
Toning black-and-white materials. Kodak Technical Data/Reference sheet G-23, May 2006.
Martin, Keith. 1997 McLaren F1.
"The Demand for Gold by Industry" (PDF). Gold bulletin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
"Colored glass chemistry". Retrieved 6 June 2009.
Dierks, S. (May 2005). "Gold MSDS". Electronic Space Products International. Archived from the original on 10 November 2006.
Louis, Catherine; Pluchery, Olivier (2012). Gold Nanoparticles for Physics, Chemistry and Biology. World Scientific. ISBN 978-1-84816-807-7.
Wright, I. H.; Vesey, J. C. (1986). "Acute poisoning with gold cyanide". Anaesthesia. 41 (79): 936–939. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1986.tb12920.x. PMID 3022615. S2CID 32434351.
Wu, Ming-Ling; Tsai, Wei-Jen; Ger, Jiin; Deng, Jou-Fang; Tsay, Shyh-Haw; et al. (2001). "Cholestatic Hepatitis Caused by Acute Gold Potassium Cyanide Poisoning". Clinical Toxicology. 39 (7): 739–743. doi:10.1081/CLT-100108516. PMID 11778673. S2CID 44722156.
Tsuruta, Kyoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Suzuki, Rie; Akita, Hirotaka; Washimi, Yasuko; Tomitaka, Akiko; Ueda, Hiroshi (2001). "Female predominance of gold allergy". Contact Dermatitis. 44 (1): 48–49. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0536.2001.440107-22.x. PMID 11156030. S2CID 42268840.
Brunk, Doug (15 February 2008). "Ubiquitous nickel wins skin contact allergy award for 2008". Archived from the original on 24 June 2011.
Singh, Harbhajan (2006). Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation. p. 509. ISBN 978-0-470-05058-3..

bottom of page